Comparative in urban growth among various local jurisdiction of Kirkuk city from 2014 to 2016 in hawija and dibis

  • Asst. Lect. Abed Tuama Jasim, Asst. Lect. Nabaz Yassin ezalden, Asst. Lect. Qayssar Mahmood Ajaj, Lect .Dr. kamaladin Fadhil Hasan.


Aerial photos were taken from USGS. (The United States Geological Survey) Kirkuk Governorate and for the same month of the following years (2014-2016), specifically from the (LAND SAT8) satellite, and then the treatment was performed on this image and the distortions and dust were removed by the (ENVI) program, after that images of the specified areas were cropped. One of the main issues in the list of the governments and planning agencies’ projects are related to the growth of the urban areas. It is critical to detect the changes and discover the environmental and socio-demographic impacts of them in order to have sustainable management. The  main objectives of the stud are : (1)to extract Land cover classes for three years 2014, 2016 using pixel-based classification method, and ( 2)  To calculate the urban growth and changes using change detection techniques.  In the course of the research in the four districts of Kirkuk governorate (Dibis, Hawija) by means of the (ENVI) program as well, noting that a (shape file) for the current official administrative boundaries was made for all the above districts by the (GIS) program. Then, the zones and areas on which the urban development processes were conducted, the changes that took place on the topography of the land and the climatic effects on the changes in the amount of water bodies areas, green spaces and desert areas in those areas for the years (2014-2016) were studied, and a study was conducted on the areas that were transformed from green areas. To non-green areas or vice versa. The numerical values ​​for the areas of the different varieties were extracted (Urban, Water bodies, Vegetation, Sand)) for the areas covered by the above research by the (ENVI) program, then all the information about the areas in question was included in detailed tables and plans showing the area of ​​each category and the percentage of this area out of the total area of ​​the administrative judiciary for each region by means of a program (EXCEL) Then a comparison was made for the changes in the area of ​​each of the items using the (ENVI) program, and digital maps were made with these values ​​by the (GIS) program.And through the research concluded The areas of urban development in the districts (Dibis, Hawija) have increased As for the Hawija district, we have noticed a decline in the areas of urban development due to several factors, the most important of which is the military operations in those areas